Resources for Marine Science: Marine Biology and Oceanography


The Nature of Science: An Introduction


Int. 1 History Is Written in Rocks


History of rocks website U.S. Geological Survey describes how the surface of the earth was formed. It explains the law of superposition and rock layers.

History of rocks video A Bozeman Science video that explains the law of superposition. It shows things that happen to the Earth and how the Law of Superposition can be used to find the relative dates of the rock.

History of rocks activity The Paleontology Portal. This link leads users to an interactive geology portal that takes a look at the geologic history of the United States.

Perceptions of scientists video A British Science Association video. Examines where the idea of the “mad scientist” comes from. Investigates Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and when the idea of “evil scientists" came about in popular culture.

Perceptions of scientists video (continued) TEDx specifically about what a scientist looks like. Examines the stereotypes and the influence they have on adults and youth.


Int. 2 Walter’s Journey Begins


Plate tectonics website This website explains the history of Alfred Wegener and his theory of plate tectonics. The website talks about where his theory came from and how it was met with opposition from the scientific community until the 1960s when Harry Hess confirmed Wegener’s theory.

Plate tectonics video Describes Wegener’s theory of plate tectonics. Explains how Wegener’s theory was finally proved through Hess showing seafloor spreading.

Plate tectonics activity This website has users identifying the different plates and boundaries on a map. There is immediate feedback and scoring.

Geologic time scale website A website with an interactive geologic time scale. Clicking on the links allows the user to go to other pages that identify the life, climates, and geography during that time period.

Geologic time scale video An explanation of the geologic time scale and how the time spans are defined and named.

Forminifera website This website gives a brief explanation of foraminifera. Links take the reader to the fossil record, life history, ecology, systematics, and morphology of the foraminifera.

Forminifera video This American Museum of Natural History describes what can be learned by studying forminifera fossils. The museum received a grant that allows them to catalog and scan the forminifera in their collection so that researchers can use the information to discover what the Earth was like in the past.


Int. 3 The K/Pg Boundary


K/Pg boundary website A National Museum of Natural History website. This website explains what the K/Pg boundary is, and the importance of the boundary.

K/Pg boundary video Describes the iridium anomaly at the K/Pg boundary. Explains that a high level of iridium would be caused by an extraterrestrial event.

K/Pg boundary video (continued) Shows the geology field trip of Harvard University geology students to look at the K/T boundary. Explains what the K/T boundary is and shows students investigating the boundary.

Creativity in science website This article from Science News for Students talks about how important creativity is in science. It discusses how most current science education is about memorizing facts, but the practice of science is not. It continues to talk about how many discoveries, or “aha” moments, are found through talking to others or getting away from the problem that the scientist is trying to solve. The article also points out that groups are more creative than individuals.

Creativity in science video Individuals discuss how the interesting part of science is not in being correct all the time, but in the failing and having to look at things differently. A few individuals briefly share their story of why they got into their field.


Int. 4 The Alvarez Hypothesis


The Alvarez Hypothesis website This website thoroughly and succinctly describes the Alvarez Hypothesis. The website discusses the iridium anomaly and the K/T (K/Pg) boundary and how the Alvarez’s came up with the idea of a meteorite.

The Alvarez Hypothesis video Defines and explains the Alvarez Hypothesis and the asteroid that caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.

Hypothesis, theory, law website A Futurism website that very clearly explains the difference between hypothesis, theory, and law. The website gives modern-day science examples of items that were proven or disproven and what that means depending on if they were a hypothesis or theory. Law is also mentioned if it is proven incorrect—very rare.

Hypothesis, theory, law video Fact, hypothesis, theory, and law are explained using science examples of gravity and evolution. Each example is shown for a fact, hypothesis, and law.

Hypothesis, theory, law activity This online quiz tests whether the user understands the difference between hypothesis, theory, and law. There are ten questions with immediate feedback.


Int. 5 Gathering Evidence and Drawing Conclusions


Scientific method website A website with some interactive parts. It discusses the scientific method as being “non-linear” and each of the main points of the scientific method.

Scientific method video Bozeman science explains the history of scientific thinking and experimentation. This begins with Aristotle and continues through modern day. The scientific method variables are given and explained.

Scientific method activity This activity shows a video and asks the user to answer different questions about the scientific method. There is also a karaoke song about the scientific method.


Unit 1: Introduction to Marine Science


Chapter 1: Exploring the Oceans


1.1 What Happened to the “Unsinkable” Ship?


Buoyant force website Encyclopaedia Britannica gives a description of buoyancy and how it is applied. This is just the description and does not contain any math.

Buoyant force video Explains Archimedes Principle and buoyancy. Describes how to figure out buoyancy and the weight of objects when removed from water.

Buoyant force simulation A PhET simulation of buoyancy. The user can manipulate the blocks, masses, volume, and density to see how buoyancy can change. The second page, “buoyancy playground,” shows how different substances have different buoyancy and how these different substances would react in different liquids.


1.2 Who Were the Early Ocean Explorers?


Early ocean explorers website An Ocean Exploration Timeline. This website gives a timeline of some of the significant explorers of the ocean starting with 5000 BC through present day. It is not an interactive timeline.

Early ocean explorers video This video does a nice job of talking about each of the early explorers and what they did. The video goes further and shows the exploration of space during the last 1:19 minutes. Otherwise, all of the explorers in the book are covered in this video.


1.3 What Started Scientific Exploration of the Oceans?


Oceanography website This website explains the Challenger Expedition. It discusses the path the HMS Challenger took, the length of the trip, and briefly where it explored. There are tabs along the side where a user can choose to look at other explorers including Polynesian seafarers, Benjamin Franklin, and Charles Darwin.

Oceanography video A discussion of the history of oceanography. The video discusses what the original explorers studied in the sea and continues through Benjamin Franklin, James Cook, and Charles Darwin. Discusses the Challenger Expedition and the Challenger Report. The video talks about the founding of oceanography up to present time including the reports and discoveries made. It discusses the different branches of oceanography. This is not really a video. It has a picture of the world with Oceanography Thermohaline Circulation with a woman talking. There is a lot of good information.

Ocean exploration and oceanography website This website includes a timeline with red arrows that a user can click on to see what happened in the history of oceanography including pictures and writing.


1.4 How Have People Explored Inner Space?


Diving devices website This website starts by discussing the early history of diving and the stories related to that history. Near the middle of the site is a timeline that explores diving since 500 BC to present day. Diving vessels are included on the timeline.

Diving devices video This video quickly goes through the diving inventions since the beginning of humans diving in the ocean to retrieve pearls and continues through the aqua lung.

Diving vessels website This website discusses Beebe and Barton, Piccard, Ewing, Earle, Vine, Ballard, and Cousteau. It goes through the vehicles and the achievements of these individuals.

MySubmarine ocean explorer NOAA activity wherein the user has their own “submarine” and can virtually explore the bottom of the ocean. There are many different videos that play depending on what the user choses.


1.5 How Did Researchers Find the Titanic?


Finding the Titanic website National Geographic interviewed Dr. Robert Ballard. Dr. Ballard describes the finding of the Titanic as the tail end of a secret Navy mission to investigate the sinking of two nuclear submarines. Dr. Ballard had 12 days after finding the submarines and the Navy told him he could do whatever he wanted with that time. They searched and found the Titanic.

Finding the Titanic video “The Man Who Found the Titanic Part 1” features Dr. Ballard briefly explaining that the original expedition was a secret military operation. He goes on to explain that he did not realize that the finding of the Titanic would spark such a phenomenon and cause scavengers and tourists to continue to take artifacts and wear away at the Titanic. The video shows pictures of the original finding of the Titanic.

Chapter 2: The Practice of Science


2.1 How Do Scientists Conduct Investigations?


Conducting science experiments website This website breaks down the parts of the scientific method and describes each part in detail with an example.

Conducting science experiments video This video talks about each element of the scientific method and shows how the scientific method is used by everyone to solve everyday problems.


2.2 How Do Engineers Solve Problems?


Engineer problem solving video This Crash Course Kids video describes the engineering process. Each step is clearly explained with examples.

Engineering problem solving activity This website has many interactive games that involve using engineering practices to solve problems.


2.3 What Are Some Tools of Marine Science?


Marine science tools website This website lists tools and what they are used for at the very top. As the user continues down the page there are pictures of each of the items as well as notes for what each item is used for.

Marine science tools video This video discusses general biology apparatus in labs. It describes each item and what it is used for.


2.4 How Can You View the Ocean’s Tiny Life-Forms?


Microscope website This website gives a brief overview of microscopes and what they do. The website explains the differences between the types of microscopes.

Microscope video This video explains in detail how to use a compound microscope. It goes through each lens and how to figure out the magnification. The video identifies parts of the microscope and what they are for.

Microscope activity This activity takes the user through how to use a microscope. It has a step-by-step guide and users are able to manipulate the virtual microscope.


2.5 How Do Scientists Present Their Findings?


Scientific communication website This website goes through three ways a scientist can get research findings out to the public. It talks about the pros and cons of getting published, science meetings, and talking with the public directly and why a scientist might choose each of these methods.

Scientific communication video This TEDx video talks about how science is not believed or trusted and that scientists tend to keep information to themselves and not get it out to the public. The speaker did a few public demonstrations that she talked about and that the demonstrations sparked curiosity in the people that were there. She is concerned that people will turn away from science completely if they are not curious and don’t trust science.


Chapter 3: Marine Science and Technology


3.1 How Are Satellites Used to Monitor the Ocean?


Satellites to monitor the ocean website NOAA’s website explains what satellites are used for in marine science and includes a description of each of NOAA’s satellites.

Satellites to monitor the ocean video An Ocean Today video describing the satellites used by NOAA and what they monitor.


3.2 How Can Engineering Solve Problems in the Marine Environment?


Deepwater Horizon disaster website Scientific American details what happened after the Deepwater Horizon explosion. The article talks about what the scientists did, what was tried, and how the spill was eventually stopped. The article continues with BP asking for further permission to drill for oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

Deepwater Horizon disaster video This is an animation of the Top Hat Oil Containment Dome to stop the flow of oil into the Gulf after the oil spill. It is all animation with no sound.

Gulf of Mexico oil spill interactive The user can click through a series of pages with interactives. When the user clicks on the interactives, more information comes up about that particular item.


3.3 How Is Marine Technology Used in Exploring the Ocean?


Marine science technology website NOAA’s website shows links to the different technology used in marine science. Users can click on the links and find out information on the individual systems and ships.

Marine science underwater Aquarius This video is a tour of the Aquarius.


3.4 How Is Marine Science Part of the Popular Culture?


Pop culture and marine science website A Deep Sea News website. This website talks about many different facets of society that have ocean themes or look to the ocean for inspiration.

Pop culture and marine science video A Big Think video. Neil deGrasse Tyson discusses pop culture and making science relevant.


Unit 2: Basic Life-Forms in the Sea


Chapter 4: Unicellular Marine Organisms


4.1 How Are Marine Organisms Classified?


Taxonomy website A Convention on Biological Diversity website explaining what taxonomy is and why it is used. The website also explains the steps of naming a new organism.

Taxonomy video This Crash Course Biology video explains why organisms are classified and the history of taxonomy.

Taxonomy activity This activity has the user identifying and classifying shells.


4.2 What Are Bacteria?


Bacteria website This website gives a brief explanation of the benefits of bacteria. There are links that will take you to systematics of bacteria, fossils of early bacteria, life history and ecology of bacteria, and morphology of bacteria.

Bacteria video A Bozeman Science video describing what a bacteria cell is, what it is composed of, and what bacteria do. The sources of carbon for bacteria are explained (photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and lithoheterotrophs). The video talks about recent research in the field showing that bacteria do communicate with each other.


4.3 What Are Diatoms?


Diatoms website Reading about general information of diatoms. It discusses the morphology, ecology, classification, and physiology of diatoms. Contains several pictures of diatoms, including individuals using a net to capture diatoms.

Diatoms video A very brief video that describes where diatoms can be found, how they move, the division of diatoms, and that some diatoms carry out photosynthesis.


4.4 What Are Dinoflagellates?


Dinoflagellates website A Tree of Life Web Project page. This website has an extensive description of dinoflagellates. It includes where to find dinoflagellates, the characteristics of dinoflagellates, the organelles, the reproduction, the life cycle, and classification.

Dinoflagellates video This brief video explains what a dinoflagellate is and why they are important.


4.5 How Do Populations Change Over Time?


Populations website A Georgia Tech Biology class website. This website explains population ecology and the terms related to population ecology. There are graphs showing what is being explained and a reference to a video about population ecology.

Populations video This Crash Course Ecology video explains populations through the example of the West Nile outbreak in Texas. It goes through each idea in populations and how it happened in Texas that led to the outbreak. It discusses what a population is, limiting factors, exponential growth, density dependent, density independent, carrying capacity, and the population growth equation.

Populations activity This activity looks at the different kinds of growth populations can experience.


Chapter 5: Marine Algae and Plants


5.1 How Are Marine Algae Adapted to Their Environment?


Marine algae website The Seaweed Site includes links on the left side of the page to different pages that are devoted to each of the different algae. This is an Irish website and does refer to the problems they are having on the Irish coast due to the invasive species Sargassum. The website also talks about uses and aquaculture.

Marine algae video This Education Portal video discusses algae in general terms. It describes both red and brown algae, where algae can be found, and seaweed. It points out that algae are very important for life, as they are responsible for approximately 80% of photosynthesis. The video also discusses diatoms and the dinoflagellates.


5.2 How Are Beach Plants Adapted to Live on the Shore?


Beach plants website This University of California, Santa Barbara website discusses the life found on sandy beaches and the importance of beach plants. It talks about dunes and the plants that are found on them and the benefits of those plants. The website goes on to talk about the threats to beaches and what can be done to protect them.

Beach plants video This Ocean Today video shows a community that has come together to plant panic grass on sand dunes to prevent erosion. The video briefly talks about the importance of sand dunes and that they are the “first line of defense against severe weather patterns…”


5.3 What Role Do Marine Grasses Play in the Ocean?


Marsh grass video A WFSU video discussing Florida’s Gulf Coast salt marshes. The video discusses the importance of the grasses in protecting from storms, providing a habitat for animals, ecotourism, etc.

Seagrass website This Ocean Portal website talks about seagrasses and seagrass beds. The website describes seagrasses, explains their growth and reproduction, and discusses where seagrasses are found, their threats, and conservation efforts.

Seagrass video This Natural Wonders of the Caribbean video talks about the seagrasses in the Caribbean, seagrasses in general, and the importance of seagrasses around the world.


5.4 How Are Mangrove Trees Adapted to a Marine Environment?


Mangrove trees website This American Museum of Natural History website explains what a mangrove tree is and how it lives in salty water. It goes on to detail how the trees take root and move to other areas of the world.

Mangrove trees video This PBS video explains what a mangrove tree is, what animals use them as a habitat, and the benefits of mangrove trees. The video points out that although they are beneficial, some residents in Hawaii want the mangroves that have taken root there to be removed. The trees have taken over nesting grounds of sea birds and cut off circulation to Hawaiian fish ponds.

Mangrove activity This activity is targeting a younger audience, however users are required to add different organisms each “day” to maintain a healthy mangrove area. Organisms will die out if conditions are not met to maintain the mangrove area.


Chapter 6: Simple Marine Animals


6.1 How Do Animals Satisfy Their Nutritional Needs?


Animal nutritional needs website This Georgia Tech Biology website discusses the macronutrients that all living things need. The website starts with plants and, about halfway down, it talks about animal nutritional needs. An extensive website.

Animal nutritional needs video A Crash Course A&P video about metabolism and nutrition in humans. This video talks about carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the reference of the human body. They discuss how bodies use food. There is no reference to any other animal, but the site does a good job of discussing the macromolecules.


6.2 What Kinds of Zooplankton Are Found in the Sea?


Plankton website This is from the Copepod website. Copepod is a website database of plankton by NOAA. This page describes what plankton are and what the population can tell us about water temperature, nutrient availability, and climate.

Plankton video A TED-Ed video showing the diversity of the plankton population. It talks about zooplankton and phytoplankton.


6.3 How Do Protozoans Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Protozoans website This is an encyclopedia.com website about protozoans. It describes protozoans, where they can be found, how their bodies are structured, and some of the diseases that protozoans cause.

Protozoans video This Bozeman Science video explains what protists are. it also explains all different aspects of the life span including diversity, reproduction, feeding, etc.


6.4 What Are the Adaptations of Sponges, Rotifers, and Bryozoans?


Sponges adaptations website This Tree of Life Web Project about sponges includes a diagram of a sponge. It discusses what sponges are made of, where they live, and how they adapt to the environment.

Sponges adaptations video A BBC Wildlife Video. Scientists venture down the Cayman wall and encounter sponges. They spend time describing the sponges and explaining why sponges do not need sunlight to live.

Rotifers adaptations website This website describes what rotifers are and where they can be found. It discusses what they eat and that they are filter feeders. It has pictures and shows what each part of the rotifer is. It also discusses reproduction in rotifers.

Rotifers adaptations video This video gives basic information about rotifers including classification and general anatomy of rotifers. It continues to describe how rotifers move and gain nutrition.

Bryozoans adaptations website A University of Michigan Museum of Zoology website. This website discusses a wide variety of information about Bryozoans including diversity of Bryozoans, where they can be found, reproduction, feeding, development, and the positive and negative impacts on humans. This website is a bit technical and has a lot of vocabulary that may need to be explained.

Bryozoans adaptations video This is a Science Learning Hub video. Associate Professor Abby Smith discusses bryozoans. She explains why some bryozoans live in colonies and what that means. She explains why bryozoan colonies are described as thickets and not reefs like corals. She also explains where people may have seen a bryozoan.


Unit 3: Marine Invertebrates


Chapter 7: Cnidarians


7.1 How Are Jellyfish Adapted to Their Environment?


Jellyfish adaptation website This Sciencing website gives basic information about cnidarians including the classes, body types, reproduction, and food.

Jellyfish adaptation website (continued) This Sciencing page describes defensive, feeding, movement, and body adaptations of the jellyfish in order to help the jellyfish live.

Jellyfish adaptation video This TED-Ed video gives general information about jellyfish. The video talks about the structure of jellyfish and how they feed. The video discusses special adaptations in jellyfish such as the box jellyfish and all the eyes it possesses. It talks about the venom of jellyfish stings.


7.2 How Are Sea Anemones Adapted to Their Environment?


Sea anemones adaptation website This National Geographic Animal site gives brief information about what a sea anemone is and discusses anatomy, populations, and symbiotic relationships. The website includes many pictures of sea anemones.

Sea anemones adaptation video This National Geographic Wild video about sea anemones. It shows how anemones feed. It also shows the symbiotic relationship with clown fish and hermit crabs. The video shows how an anemone protects hermit crabs from an octopus attack.


7.3 How Do Corals Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Coral adaptation website A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website which briefly explains what a coral is and how it feeds.

Coral adaptation video This brief video explains what a coral is and where it gets its color.

Coral reef activity. The user explores different areas of a coral reef and the organisms that live in that area by “diving” and clicking on the area of the reef they want to explore. PBS Learning Media.


7.4 How Are Hydroids Adapted to Their Environment?


Hydroid website This website gives a brief description of hydroids and includes several photos.

Hydroid video This video shows hydroid movement under a microscope.


Chapter 8: Marine Worms


8.1 How Are Flatworms and Ribbon Worms Adapted to Their Environment?


Flatworms website This website gives general information on flatworms. It gives examples of human lung fluke and tapeworms.

Flatworms video This video is from Shape of Life: The Story of the Animal Kingdom. The video describes the anatomy of a flatworm. The video points out that worms may have been the first hunters and all other hunters have followed the plan of the worms since the beginning of time. It explains how flatworms reproduce.

Ribbon worms website Mental Floss takes a viral video and goes to a biologist to find out what the organism is in the video. The article explains that biologists do not know a lot about ribbon worms, as there have been very few to study. It talks about the anatomy of the ribbon worm and where they can be found.

Ribbon worms video This Gross Science video explains the viral videos of the ribbon worms and what is going on in the viral videos. This video gives a brief overview of what a ribbon worm is.


8.2 How Do Roundworms and Segmented Worms Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Roundworm video This video gives the anatomy of the roundworm and a general overview of the nematode/roundworm.

Segmented worm website This is University of Michigan’s Biokids website. It gives a brief description of segmented worms and what is included in the segmented worm description.

Segmented worm video A MooMoo Math and Science video that thoroughly explains the anatomy of the segmented worms. The video explains how abundant segmented worms are.


8.3 What Are the Characteristics of Giant Tube Worms and Arrow Worms?


Giant tube worms website The Sea and Sky website explains the giant tube worm, where it lives, and how it feeds. It also explains the symbiotic relationship the tube worm has with bacteria.

Giant tube worms video This video explains what giant tube worms are and how they live. It describes how a young tube worm gains the bacteria that helps it feed as an adult.

Arrow worms website This brief website explains what arrow worms are. It gives an overview of how the arrow worm feeds and explains that the worms are hermaphrodites.

Arrow worms video This video describes arrow worms (chaetognatha), where they are found, and what and how they eat. It looks at research done on chaetognaths.


Chapter 9 – Mollusks


9.1 How Are Bivalves Adapted to Their Environment?


Bivalves website This University of California Museum of Paleontology website discusses what a bivalve is, where they are found, how they feed, and some of the ancient relatives of modern bivalves.

Bivalves video This video talks about what bivalves are and where they are found. It discusses the organisms that feed on bivalves, including humans. The video points out the importance of bivalves for many different things including feeding and environmental detection.


9.2 How Do Gastropods Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Gastropods website This University of California Museum of Paleontology website discusses what is included in Gastropoda and how the organisms live and complete their life functions. The website talks about the relationship between several gastropods and some of the history of the animals.

Gastropods video This video talks about cowries, sea slugs, and nudibranch. It also talks about the Giant Clam (bivalve). It shows the environment in which the organisms live.


9.3 How Are Cephalopods Adapted to Their Environment?


Cephalopods website This University of California Museum of Paleontology website details cephalopoda. It talks about octopus, squid, and cuttlefish. It describes all of the cephalopod traits and talks about color changing in cephalopods.

Cephalopods video This video talks about octopus, squid, and cuttlefish and the traits of each. The video also discusses how the animals are able to change color and texture to avoid detection or to serve as a warning to other animals.


9.4 What Are Some Other Types of Mollusks?


Chitons website The Living World of Mollusks website explains all about chitons. It talks about the shells of chitons, what they are made of, and how they work. The site discusses how and what chitons eat. It describes the rasp tongue (radula).

Chitons video This video shows and describes chitons. It describes how a chiton moves and eats. The video shows a chiton and what they look like in tide pools.

Scaphopods website This University of California Museum of Paleontology website describes the anatomy of scaphopods as well as how they locate food. The website talks about the fossils of scaphopods and the difficulty in identifying older fossils.

Scaphopods video This short video shows how a scaphopod digs. There is no sound or explanation of the scaphopod.


Chapter 10: Crustaceans


10.1 How Are Lobsters and Other Crustaceans Adapted to Their Environment?


Lobsters website This website is a list of facts about lobsters, from the sizes of different species to the fact that, though they can live 100 years, many do not reach that age due to fishing.

Lobsters video Jonathan Bird’s Blue World video talks about where to find lobsters. It discusses an aquarium that does lobster research. The aquarium talks about the coloring of lobsters. They also show a female lobster and all of her eggs. The video shows the aging of lobsters from one month to adulthood. The video also talks about lobster trapping and how the view of eating lobsters has changed.

Lobster activity Called “Hatch to Catch,” users must use information given about different locations in order to try to hatch and raise lobsters. Temperature, location, and predators are all a part of this simulation.


10.2 What Are the Characteristics and Adaptations of Crabs?


Crab website This website is a list of facts about crabs. It contains many items from the size of crabs through the average lifespan.

Crab video This video includes many facts about the crab beginning with the phylum to describing the parts of the body. It explains the differences between the male and female, the sizes of crabs and what they eat, and how crabs are used as food.


10.3 The Diverse Crustaceans: What Are Some Other Types?


Crustaceans website This Marine Education Society of Australasia website describes different crustaceans while pointing out what all crustaceans have in common. It describes the anatomy and the reproduction of crustaceans and also explains the molting process.

Shrimp website The Whale Facts website lists many different facts about a shrimp including what they eat, where they are found, and that shrimp are being overfished by man and their status is now “threatened.”

Shrimp video This National Geographic Kids video gives very general information about the types of shrimp, their swimming, and their ability to blend in to their surroundings.

Copepods website The Monterey Bay Aquarium website gives very generalized information about copepods. An “animal facts” list states the scientific name, animal type, diet, size, habitat, relatives, and where they can be found. The brief article talks about the importance of copepods.

Copepods video This video starts silently with images of copepods set to music. It continues with a video that includes talking to show the importance of plankton including copepods that feed on the much smaller particles.

Krill website This National Geographic Animal Site features pictures and general information about krill. The website focuses on the krill’s role in the food chain and how important krills are to the Antarctic ecosystem.

Krill video An ABCTVCatalyst video shows krill and discusses their importance. The video also talks about atmospheric carbon dioxide and what happens to krill eggs when carbon dioxide gets higher. The video also talks about the Antarctic ice and how krill cling to it and feed from the ice.

Amphipods website This University of Florida website describes amphipods and explains what they look like, how often they reproduce, and how they can be mistaken for other animals. The website also goes into the management of unwanted amphipods if they get into pools or homes in Florida and how to tell if they are dead.

Amphipods video An Oceanlab, University of Aberdeen video shows bait that is placed in the Mariana Trench and lowered further and further down. There is no talking, but it is explained what is taking the bait. Many giant amphipods are seen in the video.

Isopods website This Tree of Life web project contains information about all isopods, both terrestrial and marine. The website describes the characteristics of isopods, their habitats, their development, and their history.

Isopods video This EVNautilus video is of a purple isopod from the Nautilus dive. Very general information is provided about isopods. There is discussion of what isopods are called in different areas including pill bugs, water bugs, and rolly polly.

Barnacle website This NOAA website provides general information about barnacles. It talks about the drag of ships that is caused by barnacles that attach to the underside. The website also talks about barnacle feeding and reproduction.

Barnacle video This video is a short documentary that discusses barnacles. The video explains where barnacles are found and why they are in that habitat. The video talks about the predators of barnacles as well. The video discusses how a barnacle attaches to a substrate and how the barnacle reproduces. It talks about the barnacle glue and how barnacles are called fouling organisms.


10.4 How Diverse Are the Marine Arthropods?


Horseshoe crab website The National Wildlife Federation website gives general information about all aspects of horseshoe crab lives including typical lifespan, reproduction, diet, and threats.

Horseshoe crab video An Epic Wildlife video begins with the rumors of an alien creature that was killed in Russia. The animal was a horseshoe crab. The video continues to give general information about horseshoe crabs including why their blood is blue.

Marine insects website This website is X-Ray Mag International Dive Magazine. The article is both online and can be downloaded at the bottom of the page. The website talks about marine insects including mosquitos, green head flies, and halobates. The article examines why more species are not aquatic species and why halobates are the only insects that live on the open ocean.

Marine insects video This is a Smithsonian Education video about arthropods in general. The video reviews the meaning of arthropods and discusses the five major groups.

Diverse marine arthropod video This video explores the different arthropods and the similarities of the adaptations of the marine arthropods. This video mainly looks at the animals that are in the water. It briefly touches on insects at the end of the video.


Chapter 11: Echinoderms


11.1 How Diverse Are the “Stars” of the Sea?


Sea stars diversity website This website lists a lot of great information about the different species of sea stars in the Pacific Northwest. There are pages dedicated to sea stars in general as well as the different species. On the species page, one clicks on the different sea stars for information about each. There is information about sea star anatomy, reproduction, predators, and prey.

Sea stars diversity video This Jonathan Bird’s Blue World video looks at several different sea stars in different parts of the world as well as how and what different sea stars eat.


11.2 How Do Sea Stars Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Sea star life functions website This website lists a lot of great information about the different species of sea stars in the Pacific Northwest. There are pages dedicated to sea stars in general as well as the different species. On the species page, one clicks on the different sea stars and information about each sea star comes up. There is information about sea star anatomy, reproduction, predators of sea stars, and prey of sea stars.

Sea star life functions video This video takes a look at what is inside sea stars. The video talks through the different structures inside the sea star and ends with the stomach of the sea star that is pushed out to digest prey.

Sea star activity In this Science Learning Hub activity, users click on different parts of a sea star to learn more information about the dorsal and ventral systems.


11.3 How Are Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars Adapted to Their Environment?


Sea urchins and sand dollars website This is a ThoughtCo. Website that explains what sand dollars and sea urchins are. The website talks about the shape of the animals and how they move as well as reproduction.

Sea urchins and sand dollars video This is a BBC Worldwide video. It starts by showing kelp forests being attacked by sea urchins. The video continues through showing sea stars. It finishes by showing sand dollars trying to move out of the way of sea stars and being eaten by a sea star.


11.4 What Are Some Other Kinds of Eccentric Echinoderms?


Brittle stars website This Monterey Bay Aquarium website gives general information on brittle stars including the scientific name, size, diet, habitat, relatives, and range of where it lives. It briefly explains how and what brittle stars eat.

Brittle stars video This video talks about brittle stars found in LA County. The video discusses what they look like and where/when they are found. The video discusses how brittle stars can regrow arms or shed arms if attacked by a predator.

Sea lilies website This website describes sea lilies in detail. The website describes how the arms work, how the animals feed, and what the body is made up of.

Sea lily and feather star video This video shows the feather star moving through the water. The video explains the difference between feather star and sea lily. There is no talking in the video, but there are explanations posted throughout.

Feather stars website This Encyclopaedia Britannica website gives general information on feather stars and where they can be found.

Sea cucumbers website This National Geographic Animal site includes general information about sea cucumbers. The website explains how the sea cucumber feeds, its defensive adaptations, and how it reproduces.

Sea cucumbers video This National Geographic Wild video shows sea cucumbers and how they feed. It also shows how the sea cucumber fends off attacks.


Unit 4: Marine Vertebrates


Chapter 12: Marine Fishes


12.1 What Are the Features of Protochordates and Jawless Fishes?


Jawless fish website This Encyclopedia.com website talks about the characteristics of jawless fish and the jawless fish living today. The website also talks about the larval stage of the lamprey and why there is interest in that stage.

Jawless fish video A Utah State University Biology course video. Both hagfish and lampreys are discussed. The video talks about hagfish slime and what that does for hagfish. Hagfish are scavengers and will tie themselves in a knot. The video discusses the anatomy and fossils of hagfish. Lampreys are parasitic and used in anatomy classes. The video discusses the anatomy and fossils of lampreys.


12.2 How Do Cartilaginous Fishes Carry Out Their Life Functions?


Cartilaginous fishes website This ThoughtCo. website discusses what is a cartilaginous fish and what does that mean. It gives examples of cartilaginous fishes and discusses when cartilaginous fishes showed up in the fossil record.

Cartilaginous fishes video This BlueWorldTV video discusses different sharks and how they live. It talks about shark eyesight and their senses. Feeding habits are shown and body plans are discussed. The video discusses that sharks are not interested in humans as food.


12.3 How Are the Bony Fishes Adapted to Their Environment?


Bony fish website This ThoughtCo. website discusses how bony fish are different than cartilaginous fish. It gives the evolution of bony fishes and examples of bony fishes.

Bony fish video This Koaw video explains the traits of a bony fish. The video goes through directional terms so that describing where parts of fish are located makes more sense. The video describes the outside anatomy of bony fishes.


12.4 What Are Some Unusual Adaptations Among Fish?


Unusual adaptations of fish website This Sea and Sky Presents website shows pictures and descriptions of unusual adaptations of a few fish. The website shows several different kinds of adaptations.

Unusual adaptations of fish video This Incredible World video shows what they have determined are the ten most amazing sea creatures ever discovered. There is no talking in the video but there are descriptions of each of the organisms as they show the organism.


Chapter 13: Marine Reptiles and Birds


13.1 How Are Marine Reptiles Adapted to Their Environment?


Marine reptiles website This Sea and Sky Presents website gives a brief overview of marine reptiles. Further down the page there are specific marine reptiles and brief explanations of the reptiles including turtles, marine snakes, and marine iguanas.

Marine reptiles video (sea turtles) This BlueWorldTV video shows many different sea turtles in their environment. The video shows what happens when turtles mate and reproduce. It shows a female turtle laying eggs and discusses what determines the sex of baby turtles. The video ends by showing baby sea turtles moving into the ocean and swimming away.

Marine reptiles video (sea snakes) This BlueWorldTV video follows a sea snake under water and talks about the anatomy and adaptations of the sea snake. The video talks about sea snake venom and why divers are unlikely to get bitten by a sea snake.

Marine reptiles video (iguanas) This BBCWorldwide video shows marine iguanas in their habitat and what they do to survive.


13.2 How Are Marine Birds Adapted to Their Environment?


Marine birds website This Birdlife International website shows several marine birds and discusses the adaptations they have compared to their terrestrial peers.

Marine birds video This video talks about the adaptations of marine birds that enable them to live in water environments. Several adaptations are discussed including legs/feet, bills, and feeding habits.


Chapter 14: Marine Mammals


14.1 How Diverse Are the Whales and Dolphins?


Dolphins and whales website Describes types of whales, gives the differences between dolphins and porpoises, and gives a few pictures and general facts about the mammals.

Dolphins and whales video This is a brief video put out by the Whale and Dolphin Conservation. There is no sound to this video. The video shows the difference between fish and mammals.


14.2 How Are Whales Adapted to Their Environment?


Whale adaptation website Website giving information about the adaptations whales have developed for survival in the water. These adaptations include blubber, echolocation, lungs, 4 chambered hearts, excellent hearing, and conscious breathing. The website briefly explains each of these.

Whale adaptation video It’s Okay to Be Smart video. This video discusses how whales developed from land animals. It discusses the anatomy and communication in whales. The video discusses what and how whales eat.


14.3 What Are the Characteristics of Other Marine Mammals?


Pinniped characteristics website This Marine Mammal Center website discusses each of the pinnipeds in general terms. The website continues to show the pinnipeds that are common on the California coast. The user is able to click on a link for each pinniped and learn more about that particular pinniped. A couple of the links include the sounds that the pinniped makes.

Pinniped characteristics video This video talks about each of the individual types of pinnipeds. The video talks about where pinnipeds live and feed. It also discusses reproduction and raising pups. Body types are also discussed. The video ends by discussing how and why pinniped numbers have been depleted and what has been done to correct that.

Sea otter characteristics website This Defenders of Wildlife website provides a lot of information about sea otters. It discusses diet, population, habitat, behavior, and reproduction. It also gives a brief history of how the sea otter numbers plummeted and how they are again on the rise.

Sea otter characteristics video This video takes a deep look at sea otter fur. It discusses how a sea otter stays warm, how much fur sea otters have per square inch, and that baby sea otter's fur is different. It also takes a brief look at how otters were almost hunted to extinction.

Sirenians characteristics website This Animal Diversity Web website contains extensive information on sireanians including the animals that are extinct (Stellar’s sea cows). Information on diversity, geographic range, habitat, physical description, reproduction, lifespan, behavior, communication, food habits, and predation are included.

Sirenians characteristics video This SciShow video gives facts about manatees. There is a reference to dugongs. The video discusses the body shape, the closest living relatives, where they live, and other adaptations.

Polar bear characteristics website The Polar Bears International website does a thorough job of describing the polar bear and its behaviors. It also talks about the myths surrounding and believed about polar bears and discusses what happens when there are polar bear encounters. The website is focused on conserving polar bears.

Polar bear characteristics video This FreeSchool video explains how polar bears are adapted to their environment. The video talks about many aspects of the polar bear including hunting, food, sense of smell, and why polar bears are considered marine mammals.

Polar bear activity The WWF Global polar bear tracker allows users to track different polar bears. When the user clicks on a bear icon on the map, real information comes up about each bear. The website itself explains why polar bears are tracked.


14.4 What Is the Diving Reflex?


Diving reflex website This article on the Scientific American website talks about the diving reflex in both water mammals and humans. The site explains what happens when the diving reflex is activated and the body's systems change/slow down.

Diving reflex video This SciShow video talks about how marine mammals are able to dive for long periods of time. It talks about myoglobin and how this works in marine mammals. The video also briefly talks about the other traits for holding breath for long periods of time.


Unit 5: The Water Planet


Chapter 15: The World of Water


15.1 Why Is Earth Called a Water Planet?


Water planet website The US Geological Survey website shows the total amount of water on Earth and compares it to how much drinkable water is available. Graphs show where water is located and the percentage of fresh water. There is also a graph showing the total withdrawals of water in 2010 and where the withdrawals came from. The website has several tabs. Clicking on a tab generates more information about water and the water cycle, as well as activities.

Water planet video This Earth Rocks! video describes each of the oceans on Earth and where they are located. The video also explains the depths of the different parts of the ocean. It continues to talk about where all of the water on Earth can be found including glaciers, ground water, and the atmosphere. There is a brief quiz section in the middle of the video. The answers to the quiz are displayed shortly after the quiz is displayed. There is another quiz at the end of the video with the answers being shown shortly after the quiz is displayed.


15.2 What Is the Planet’s Water Budget?


Earth’s water budget website This is the West Virginia Conservation Agency website. The information is contained on one page of this website. The other pages are about the West Virginia Conservation Agency and their other programs. The water budget page explains where most of the water is on Earth. There is a graphic that shows how water goes between the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans.

Earth’s water budget video This video is presented by the National Science Foundation and Ohio University. The video very clearly explains a water budget. It also uses the water cycle to explain the water budget. The video gives formal definitions of each of the terms of the water cycle. It gives the water budget equation and each term in the equation. The video goes through topographic maps and how to draw them in order to see how ground water flows. The video shows in detail how to use the water budget equation.

Water cycle website NASA’s website explains the water cycle. There are several links off of the first page that lead to other pages that explain different items in the water cycle.

Water cycle video This National Science Foundation video talks about the water cycle and how it works. It talks about all of the places where water can be found. It explains each of the parts of the water cycle and how water moves in the cycle. The video explains the language that is used to talk about the parts of the water cycle. There are games to implement that will help students understand the water cycle. The website explains the instruments used to study the water cycle. The final pages deal with the societal applications to the water cycle.

Water cycle activity This activity shows a video about the water cycle and then asks students to take a quiz afterwards.


15.3 Why Is Water Chemistry So Important?


Water chemistry website The National Science Foundation website has several pages that tell the story of water, the elements in water, what a water molecule looks like, how the molecule bonds to other molecules, why scientists are looking at water, and how water interacts with chlorine in salt water.

Water chemistry video This Crash Course Biology video talks about the chemistry of water. It discusses the bonds and states of water, the difference between cohesion and adhesion, surface tension, hydrophilic solutions and hydrophobic solutions, ice density, and heat capacity.

pH and dissolved oxygen in water website This Fondriest Environmental Inc. website clearly explains pH and what that means for a water environment. It talks about what happens to life and which life can exist at different pH levels. The website explains how different pH levels causes molecules to behave differently and the effects that has on not only fish and wildlife, but also coral reefs.

pH and dissolved oxygen in water video This MIT video simply explains dissolved oxygen and why it is important in aquatic environments. The video briefly touches on what can cause changes in dissolved oxygen including human actions.


15.4 What Do We Know About the Salty Sea?


Salty sea website This USGS website explains very clearly why the ocean is salty. It describes the terrestrial sources of water runoff, which causes salt water, and how the hydrothermal vents also contribute to the salinity.

Salty sea video This DNews video refers to the USGS statements as to why the ocean is salty. The video goes on to explain why the ocean remains salty and why there are salty lakes.


Chapter 16: Geology of the Ocean


16.1 How Did the Ocean and Continents Form?


Oceans forming website This is the Foundations of Complex Life website (MIT and NASA Astrobiology Team). The website does briefly touch upon continents forming, however, it spends most of the page explaining where the water on Earth comes from. It discuses the research being done by looking at zircon found in the Jack Hills in Australia. The zircon mineral grains are the oldest evidence of liquid water on Earth and evidence for the oldest continents as well.

Oceans forming video This National Geographic video starts by looking at the current water on the planet. The video goes to the beginning of the Earth and explains how water formed on the surface and how comets added to the water on the Earth.

Continents forming website This National Geographic Society website explains plate tectonics and Alfed Wegener’s original theory of one supercontinent Pangea. Seafloor spreading is also explained. The website also has activities for students to complete.

Continents forming video This video briefly explains Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift and how the continents of the planet are moving. It shows how plate tectonics works and states that the Earth will look completely different in 250 million years.


16.2 What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics?


Plate tectonics website This National Geographic Sites website explains the different plates of the Earth and how they move. There are two short videos on the site. One of the videos talks about volcanoes and what the ring of fire is. The other video talks about earthquakes and why they happen.

Plate tectonics video This Bozeman Science video starts by talking about Alfred Wegener's theory and the proof for this theory. The video shows the plates on the planet and talks about how they move. It describes how earthquakes and volcanoes happen. It also talks about the convection currents that drive the movement of the plates. There is also discussion of seafloor spreading.

Mountain maker, Earth shaker activity As a user clicks on arrows, information pops up about the area on the Earth’s crust. There are additional activities on the page about plate tectonics.

Convection current website This KhanAcademy article explains convection and what that means when it is applied to the Earth’s crust. The website explains how convection is related to plate tectonics and talks about the mid-oceanic ridge.

Convection current video This is a brief section of the BBC documentary film “Earth: The Power of the Planet.” This section explains the convection currents and what that does to the Earth’s crust.

Convection currents activity/graphic This shows how convection currents work within the Earth and what happens.

Seafloor spreading website This National Geographic website explains seafloor spreading. The website also explains the mid-ocean ridges and how speed with cause certain features underwater. If a ridge is separating slowly, there will be narrow underwater cliffs and mountains. If a ridge separates quickly, there will be gentle slopes underwater.

Seafloor spreading video This is part of a Bill Nye video that explains the history of the discovery of sea floor spreading. Bill Nye talks with a geologist, Neal Driscoll, at Scripps about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.


16.3 What Do We Know About Seafloor Topography?


Seafloor topography website This NOAA website talks about the first primitive way people measured the depth of the sea floor. It continues by talking about how the first “sonar” was employed to map the sea floor. These original attempts were laborious. In the 1960s the U.S. Navy began using multibeam sonar and after that, the technology gradually improved.

Seafloor topography video This National Geographic video talks about a NOAA ship that is updating old sea floor maps around St. Thomas. Researchers are combining sonar data with images from ROVs. The scientists allow the sonar to run all night and then will send the ROV to points of interest the next day.

Seafloor features website This ArcGIS website defines seafloor geomorphology and what that means. The website continues to describe each feature on the sea floor.

Seafloor features video This video shows a crosscut of the ocean. The video explains all of the features in the crosscut of the ocean floor and how the items have formed on the floor through plate tectonics. At the end of the video, the speaker quickly reviews all of the features that were explained.


16.4 What Are Some Features of Coasts and Reefs?


Beaches website This National Geographic website explains the different kinds of beaches that are found all over the world. The website also explains why beaches are important and what communities are doing to try and save the beaches.

Beaches video This video shows many different types of beaches. There are images of beaches from all over the world and descriptions shown as to why the beaches look the way they do. There is no talking in the video.

Rocky coasts website This is a PBS website. Once the user presses launch, another page comes up and defines what a rocky coast is. There is a second page where the user can click on pictures and the website explains what the feature is and where it can be found along the rocky coast.

Rocky coasts video This video shows a couple of individuals interacting with the rocky coast. There are descriptions of what a rocky coast is and why they are important, but there is no talking in the video.

Rocky coasts activity As the user clicks on different features of the rocky coast, a page will pop up with further information. PBS Learning Media.

Reefs (fringing reef, barrier reef) website This National Geographic website explains what reefs are. It also explains the different reefs including fringing reef, barrier reef, and atoll. The website also explains how manmade reefs are formed and the history of making manmade reefs.

Reefs (fringing reef, barrier reef) video This video has a marine biologist explaining the different kinds of reefs. The biologist draws pictures in sand and explains reefs and pictures are shown of actual reefs that he is describing.

Reef activity The user is a clown fish that clicks on sea stars. At each click another screen pops up and asks if the activity shown is good for a coral reef or not.

Keys website This National Geographic website explains what a key (cay) is and where they are found. It also talks about the wildlife and the vulnerability of this ecosystem.

Keys video This CuriosityShow video talks about how islands form. It discusses how cays/keys form. A diver actually goes to the cay/key to take a look at what is there. The video continues and shows different stages of cays/keys.

Atoll website This National Geographic website explains what an atoll is and where to find them. The website explains why atolls are hazardous to ships and cause many shipwrecks. It explains the history of atoll use for nuclear weapon testing and how certain countries protest this use as it damages coral reefs.

Atoll video This video explains how an atoll is created through geologic process. The video shows the creatures, including corals, living in the atoll. It then talks about the reef that is made and what happens to the island.


Chapter 17: Climate and the Ocean


17.1 How Does Temperature Vary Over Earth’s Surface?


Radiant energy website This Science Daily website briefly explains what radiant energy is and how it is referred to in different applications. The website gives the units of radiant energy.

Radiant energy video This video explains what radiant energy is and how wavelengths work. The video discusses the different wavelengths and what is found at different wavelengths.

Angle of insolation website This website gives the definition of angle of insolation and how it is dependent on several things including the sun angle, the day length, ground slope, path length, and state of atmosphere. The website has graphs that show how light will strike the surface of the Earth and what that means.

Angle of insolation video This California Academy of Sciences video describes how each hemisphere tilts toward and away from the sun and how the lack of sunlight or surplus of sunlight causes the seasons. It also talks about how ocean life reacts to changes in the seasons.

Radiant energy activity This activity has an interactive as well as questions. The interactive takes a look at how the sun’s rays hit the Earth and what gets in the way as well as how the Earth is warmed up.

Ocean temperature website The Science Learning Hub website shows how the water of the Earth is warmer in certain areas and cooler in others. It explains why there is a variance in water temperature and what happens when water temperature changes.

Ocean temperature video This NASA video talks about the ocean being very important to life on Earth. The video describes what the sun does to the ocean. The video talks about the different currents and what drives the currents. It explains how water temperature changes and what this does to regions of the Earth and ocean life.

Ocean temperature activity This page has several activities that take a look at rising temperature, density of liquids, ocean currents, carbon cycle, and climate change.


17.2 What Are the Interactions in Earth’s Layers?


Sea breeze and land breeze website The NC State University website explains the difference between sea breezes and land breezes. A graphic shows how the breezes move and an article explains what is happening.

Sea breeze and land breeze video This short video shot on a beach clearly explains what is happening to cause the sea breezes and the land breezes.

Sea breeze and land breeze activity This simulation shows the difference between a sea breeze and a land breeze as animation plays.

Specific heat website The U.S. Geological Survey website explains why specific heat capacity of water is important. It compares the specific heat of water to that of metals and points out that fish need water to stay more consistent.

Specific heat video This Smart Learning for All video very clearly shows how water is different from other liquids in having a high specific heat. It also clearly shows what that means in comparison to other liquids.

Fog website This National Geographic website explains how fog forms. It discusses the different types of fog that form including radiation fog, advection fog, valley fog, and freezing fog. It also discusses fog catchers and why a community might need a fog catcher, but not every community.

Fog video This Weather Channel video explains how fog in general is made. The video explains radiation fog, but does not go into any other specific fogs.

Humidity and dew point website The WeatherQuestions.com website defines both humidity and dew point. It also explains what they mean in conjunction with each other. A link on the page takes the user to a conversion tool that goes between temperature, dew point, and relative humidity.

Humidity and dew point video This National Weather Service Chicago video explains the difference between humidity and dew point. It also explains how dew point and relative humidity can help predict what the weather will feel like.

Dew website The WeatherQuestions.com website explains what dew is and why it forms on surfaces, as well as what surfaces it will form on.

Dew video This CBS6 Albany video explains what dew is and what the weather will be in order for dew to condense.


17.3 What Kinds of Weather Occur Over the Ocean?


Hurricane website The NOAA website explains clearly the difference between tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes. It also explains the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The website briefly explains what NOAA is doing to track and identify the storms.

Hurricane video This National Geographic video explains what a hurricane is and what a hurricane looks like. The video talks about the expense and loss of life during hurricanes. It also talks about hurricane hunter planes and scientists and what they are doing to try to predict these storms.

El Niño and La Niña website The NOAA website explains El Niño and La Niña. The website explains what each weather condition will cause over North America and Canada.

El Niño and La Niña video This Usoceangov video clearly explains what each weather condition is. It continues to explain that the weather is seen over North America in the winter time causing either colder than normal or warmer than normal conditions.

Hurricane tracker This allows the user to track hurricanes.


17.4 What Is the Greenhouse Effect and Its Impact?


Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect website This LiveScience website explains what a greenhouse gas is and what greenhouse gases do. It also explains what the greenhouse effect is and how the greenhouse gases contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect video This NASA Earth Observatory video explains how radiation gets trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases. It also explains the two biggest greenhouse gases and how they contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Global warming website The NRDC (National Resources Defense Council) website addresses what global warming is and that it is happening. It explains who the biggest contributors to global warming are and what can be done.

Global warming video This National Geographic video explains what global warming is and what causes it. It shows what global warming is doing to the Artic sea ice. It also explains what the possibility of the temperature rising can do to the environment and organisms on Earth. The video gives guides as to what individuals can do to cut back on global warming.

Global warming activity This is a global warming time machine. The user can choose sea ice, sea level, carbon dioxide, and global temperature to see how the Earth has changed over time.

Fossil fuels website The Science Daily website defines fossil fuels and describes where they come from. It also explains the link between burning fossil fuels and the carbon emissions that contribute to global warming.

Fossil fuels video This Student Energy video explains clearly where fossil fuels come from. It explains what caused coal, oil, and natural gas to form. The video explains that the world mostly uses fossil fuels and what is made by the fossil fuels.


Unit 6: Energy in the Ocean


Chapter 18: Temperature and Pressure


18.1 What Do We Know About Heat in the Ocean?


States of matter website This website has an enlarged microscopic view of solid, liquid, and gas. A table includes summarizations of the properties of the states of matter.

States of matter video This FreeSchool video goes through three states of matter. It talks about the properties of the states of matter and how they are measured.

Heat of vaporization and heat of fusion website The Hyperphysics website has definitions for the heat of vaporization and the heat of fusion. There are many links on this website that will take the user further into the subject. There are math practice and math explanations for the concepts.

Heat of vaporization and heat of fusion video This video has a graph that clearly shows where heat of fusion and heat of vaporization are. The video explains each part of the graph. It explains what heat of fusion and heat of vaporization individually are.

Ice in the ocean website This comprehensive National Snow & Ice Data Center website is all about snow ice. The website explains where the information comes from and how it is measured. It covers characteristics of ice, processes, environment, exploration, data, and how ice is studied.

Ice in the ocean video This National Geographic video shows scientists that studied artic ice on a five-month expedition. The ship was tethered to an ice floe. There is not a lot of talking, just snippets of what the scientists have to say about the artic ice and studying it, however, it shows how thick the ice is and what people do to study the ice when they are on it.

Iceberg website The NOAA website defines what an iceberg is. It also states what floating ice that is smaller than an iceberg is called. The website discusses how icebergs are classified.

Iceberg video This short video describes what an iceberg is. It also talks about the smaller pieces that are not considered icebergs and the damages those smaller pieces cause. The video shows some of the life that is dependent upon icebergs.

Glacier website The comprehensive National Snow & Ice Data Center website is all about glaciers. It covers facts about glaciers, a photo gallery, and science and data resources.

Glacier video This MonkeySee video tells what size layers of snow and ice must be to be considered a glacier. It talks about how a glacier moves and the landforms that are left behind when a glacier retreats.


18.2 How Does Temperature Vary in the Ocean?


Thermocline website This NOAA website defines thermocline. It also explains what is above and below the thermocline. The website notes that the thermocline plays a role in meteorological forecasting and explains how.

Thermocline video This Wiz Science video explains what a thermocline is and explains why it is where it's located.

Bathythermograph website This NOAA website explains what a bathythermograph is used for and pictures show what it looks like.

Bathythermograph video This Urban Coast Institute video shows a bathythermograph and all of its parts. The video explains what happens to the stylus while it is measuring temperature. It explains why it was important for the Navy to measure the thermocline.

Temperature effects on ocean life website This National Geographic website discusses how temperature increases in the ocean have already caused coral bleaching in some places. It discusses how krill reproduce in smaller numbers when ocean temperatures rise. It also talks about higher sea levels, stronger storms, and the spread of bacteria and diseases. The website points out that emission of greenhouse gases must be reduced, but even if it is significantly reduced, it would take decades or longer for the greenhouse gases in our atmosphere to dissipate.

Temperature effects on ocean life video This National Geographic video is specific to what is happening to coral reefs as the temperature of oceans is increasing. It shows that coral bleaching is happening in several places around the world and predicts other places of coral bleaching.


18.3 How Does Pressure Vary in the Ocean?


Pressure vary with ocean depth website The NOAA website explains what pressure is and how the pressure changes as you travel further down in the ocean. It explains hydrostatic pressure. It also discusses that marine mammals have no problem with pressure due to differences in their bodies and what those differences are.

Pressure vary with ocean depth video This video explains why the deep sea animals that are being found in the deepest places of the ocean look the way they do. It talks about the pressure that the fish live under and what that does to the animal.

Barotrauma website The Scuba Diver Life website explains the possible types of barotrauma that happen to divers and what can be done to prevent barotrauma. The site explains the anatomy of the ear and where the damage is done to the ear with barotrauma.

Barotrauma video In this Ask Doctors video a doctor explains what barotrauma is and what causes it (pressure changes in flying or diving).

Bends website This Human Diseases and Conditions Forum website explains what the bends are, what happens to the body when a diver has the bends, and where the name comes from. It also explains treatments for the bends.

Bends video This Coast Guard Channel video discusses the bends as well as giving an actual story of a diver that has the bends. The Coast Guard sent a plane to pick up the diver with the bends in order to get the diver treated right away for this serious condition.

Air embolism website The AquaViews Online Scuba Magazine website describes an air embolism. It explains that air embolism caused through decompression sickness is often difficult to spot. The website goes on to explain how divers are treated for air embolism.

Air embolism video This video shows an example of a balloon going into high pressure and then being filled at the bottom of a tank and being allowed to ascend. The video then shows what happens inside of a person when air gets into arteries. There is no talking, but it is very clear what is going on.

Nitrogen narcosis website This ThoughtCo. website explains nitrogen narcosis and what causes it. It explains that different divers will experience nitrogen narcosis at different depths and it can be very dangerous as it slows reaction times and alters perception. The website states that a diver should end the dive once they notice it.

Nitrogen narcosis video This video is an interview with Dr. Richard Vann, a former Navy Diving Officer. It discusses what is known about nitrogen narcosis. Dr. Vann talks about what happens when people breathe different gases under water. The video talks about how sometimes divers can get “narced” faster when they work harder underwater.

Osmoregulation website The Innovateus website provides the formal definition of osmoregulation. It talks about the different forms of osmoregulation and explains the difference between osmoregulation in animals and plants.

Osmoregulation video This Tangerine Education video describes osmoregulation for living organisms. It also explains the difference between osmoregulators and osmoconfomers as well as explaining hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.

Osmotic pressure website The Biology Dictionary website explains what osmotic pressure is and what it does. It gives the osmotic pressure equation and explains all of the variables. The website gives examples of osmotic pressure at the bottom of the page.

Osmotic pressure video This Learning Simply video starts by explaining osmosis and continues by describing osmotic pressure. The video explains the osmotic pressure equation.


Chapter 19: Light and Sound in the Sea


19.1 How Does Light Interact with Water?


Electromagnetic spectrum website The NASA website explains the electromagnetic spectrum and where different wavelengths fall on the spectrum. It talks about measuring electromagnetic radiation.

Electromagnetic spectrum video This MonkeySee video explains the electromagnetic spectrum. It also explains what a wavelength is and how different waves on the electromagnetic spectrum have different wavelengths.


19.2 How Do Light and Life Interact in the Sea?


Bioluminescence website The NOAA website briefly explains bioluminescence. It notes that bioluminescence is not rare and that most types of animals in the ocean have bioluminescence.

Bioluminescence video This USOceanGov video explains bioluminescence. It discusses why certain animals use bioluminescence – either to attract mates or evade predators.

Photophores website The American Fisheries Society website defines what a photophore is, what they do, and where they are located on different fish. The website also has bioluminescence listed underneath and explains how photophores are used in bioluminescence.

Photophores video This video talks about the two chemicals—luciferin and luciferase—that cause the glowing (bioluminescence) in animals. The video points out that bioluminescence is pretty common in animals. It talks about what a photophore is and what it is used for—communication, warning, etc.

Vertical migration website The AquaticFieldCourse2013 website discusses many types of migration in the water column in response to different stimuli. The website focuses mainly on vertical migration and discusses a study that was performed to see if zooplankton distribution along the water column was different between day and night.

Vertical migration video This SAMSmarinescience video features a group of scientists that have traveled to see the zooplankton migration. The migration is described and an explanation is offered as to why the zooplankton migrate. The scientists used 20 years worth of data and discovered that zooplankton respond to moonlight.

Countershading website This ThoughtCo. website explains what countershading looks like on animals. It also talks about how countershading is beneficial to aquatic animals.

Countershading video This BlueWorldTV video uses sharks to explain countershading. The video explains that this is what sharks do to hide in plain sight.


19.3 What Is Known About Sound in the Sea?


Compressions and rarefactions website The Physics Classroom website describes sound as a pressure wave. It explains compressions and rarefactions with graphics and explains what a wavelength is.

Compressions and rarefactions video This video explains sound wave characteristics. Not only does it describe compression and rarefactions, but also frequency, amplitude, and wavelength.

Simple wave simulator The Physics Classroom simulator allows the user to see what happens when frequency, wave speed, and amplitude are adjusted. Notes and exercises are included.

SOFAR website This NOAA website explains what makes up sound including frequency, wavelength, and amplitude. It also discusses that sound travels differently in air than it does in water. The website also discusses the SOFAR channel and has a link that the user can follow for more information.

SOFAR video This video discusses the SOFAR channel and where it is found in the ocean. The website explains that sound pollution in the ocean blocks some of the sound transmission in the ocean. Parts of the video are hard to hear. The video ends with questions by two individuals in various locations in a house.

Echolocation website The DiscoverWildlife website describes how sea animals echolocate. It talks about why an ocean animal would echolocate. It also talks about bats and birds that echolocate.

Echolocation video This Living Waters video explains echolocation by using a dolphin. It describes how dolphins use echolocation to hunt.


Chapter 20: Tides, Waves, and Currents


20.1 How Do the Tides Affect the Ocean?


Tide and tidal range website This NOAA website explains tides and tidal ranges. It also talks about what makes waves rise and fall.

Tide and tidal range video This Crash Course Astronomy video explains what is happening during the tides. It talks about how the moon affects the tides. It also talks about how the moon is moving away from the Earth slightly every year. This video also discusses why the moon matters for the tides, and how the sun does not have as great of an effect as the moon does. It also describes the spring and neap tides.

Semidiurnal tide and diurnal tide website The NOAA website gives a brief explanation of what the tides are and when they occur. There is a map that is marked with each kind of tide.

Semidiurnal tide and diurnal tide video This NauticaLive video explains exactly what the semidiurnal tide and the diurnal tide are. It also talks about the tidal range and flood tide and ebb tide.

Tidal bulge website The NOAA website explains what is happening on the Earth in relation to the location of the moon which cause the tidal bulge. The website explains what is happening to the water that causes the phenomenon. There are several pages that explain all about tides and what affects them.

Tidal bulge video The AFP News Agency explains quickly and succinctly how the tidal bulge happens and its influences. It also discusses what influences the tides all over the Earth.

Spring tides and neap tides website The NOAA website clearly explains what the spring tide and the neap tides are. It also explains that the spring tide has nothing to do with the time of year, but with the concept that the tide springs forth.

Spring tides and neap tides video This NauticaLive video very simply explains the difference between spring tides and neap tides.


20.2 What Are the Characteristics of Ocean Waves?


Wave height website The NOAA website explains what is considered wave height by scientists. A graphic shows exactly what they are talking about. The website explains how waves change in different weather.

Wave height video This Discovery video talks about how surfers measure the height of the wave. Judges use the height of the surfer to figure out what the height of the wave is. There is some inconsistency as to determining the bottom of the wave.

Wave activity In this NOAA Ocean Explorer activity users can change the slope angle for a surfer to see how waves are formed. Users need to answer questions about how the slope was changed and observed. There are additional questions that require computing wavelength and the speed of a wave.

Swells website The Sciencing website discusses what a swell is, how it is formed, the height of the swell, the period of the swell, and the direction of the swell. It also talks about how a surf forecaster will give the swell height.

Swells video This video describes how swells form during a storm. The video uses an actual body of water to simulate what happens in a storm and shows how the swells move away from the storm.

Whitecap website The Oxford Dictionary website gives the formal definition of whitecap.

Whitecap video This video shows animation of whitecaps on the ocean. The animation is compared to still pictures of actual ocean scenes with whitecaps.

Rogue waves website The NOAA website explains a rogue wave. It also talks about how rogue waves were not accepted as a phenomenon until recently. Very few reasons are known why rogue waves happen.

Rogue waves video This SciShow video explains how rogue waves were not believed until 1995 when a rogue wave slammed into Draupner Oil platform off Norway. This was the first scientifically documented rogue wave. Rogue waves are different from tsunamis and this video explains the difference.

Tidal bore website This National Geographic website explains what a tidal bore is and where they can be found. It discusses the possible sizes of tidal bores and why tidal bores can be dangerous. The website gives factors that allow tidal bores to happen.

Tidal bore video This Audiopedia video explains what a tidal bore is and the size of the tidal bore. It explains that tidal bores happen in few places throughout the world. The video explains that tidal bores can be dangerous for boats, but there is bore surfing.

Tsunami website The NOAA website gives the definition of a tsunami and explains they are due to earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea. The website also points out that many people call them tidal waves, but that is being discouraged by oceanographers because tsunamis have very little to do with tides.

Tsunami video This MonkeySee video explains what causes a tsunami. It also explains where a tsunami gains its height and when it begins to slow down. It talks about how scientists monitor the ring of fire in order to warn areas at risk for tsunamis.


20.3 What Are the Features of Ocean Currents?


Global ocean currents website The NOAA website explains how the global ocean currents are called the “global conveyor belt.” It explains why the currents move the way they do and has graphics that show the different global currents. Several more pages show how currents are measured and how currents affect our lives.

Global ocean currents video This NOAA video starts by introducing what currents are and how some are small and quick, while others take 1,000 years to complete. It discusses what causes currents. This video also explains the Coriolis effect and gyres.

Coriolis effect website This NOAA page describes the Coriolis effect very simply. Graphics show how the air flows in the different hemispheres of the Earth as well. More pages discuss different items about currents including tidal currents, coastal currents, surface ocean currents, global conveyor belt, how currents are measured, and how currents affect our lives.

Coriolis effect video The NOVA PBS video gives the formal definition of the Coriolis effect. It explains how the Coriolis effect works using a demonstration of throwing a paper airplane.

Gyres website This National Geographic Sites website explains what a gyre is and how it happens. It explains individual gyres and the currents that make up the gyre. It also talks about the impact of debris that end up in gyres.

Gyres video This video shows all of the gyres and discusses the direction the water flows. It takes a look at the winds that cause the water to flow in a particular direction. The video discusses that the easiest way to see the currents is to follow flotsam in the ocean.

Turbidity current website The NOAA website defines what a turbidity current is and how they are set into motion. It also explains what turbidity means. The website discusses how scientists measure turbidity.

Turbidity current video This video clearly explains a turbidity current. It shows laboratory-created demonstrations of a turbidity current. The demonstrations show what currents will do going down a slope, into an open basin, and moving into an open basin around an object.

Upwelling website The NOAA website explains what is happening when an upwelling occurs. It also points out the opposite of upwelling—“downwelling”—and what is happening during that process. It talks about the water being colder and rich in nutrients when an upwelling happens.

Upwelling video This Wiz Science video shows what is going on during upwelling. It discusses what happens during an upwelling and that nutrients and cold water reach the ocean surface.

Undertow and rip current website The Surfer Today website explains rip current, undertow, and rip tide. The website discusses the dangers of each one and their causes.

Undertow and rip current video This Ripcurrents2011 video describes undertow and rip currents. It explains that rip currents are hard to identify from the beach. The video explains how to escape a rip current.

Sandbar website The World Landforms website gives the three main characteristics of a sandbar. The website states how sandbars are formed and names famous sandbars or barrier islands. It also talks about why sandbars can be dangerous.

Sandbar video The video quickly describes what a sandbar is and what makes it. It also states the hazards associated with sandbars for boats and ends by repeating what a sandbar is.

Tidal current website The NOAA website explains tidal current. It also explains what is meant by “flood” and “ebb” for tidal currents. An animation in the middle of the page shows the “flood” and “ebb” of the current.

Tidal current video This NOAA video talks about why there are currents in the ocean. It starts by talking about tidal currents in general. It shows the way currents move all over the world by wind. The video completes by stating tides, wind, and heat/salinity all put the motion in the ocean.

Whirlpool website The Web Ecoist website explains what a whirlpool is and what makes a whirlpool classified as a maelstrom. It also continues to show ten whirlpools that are classified as maelstroms and describes each one.

Whirlpool video This video explains what whirlpools are and how they form. It lists the five largest whirlpools and points out how Hollywood fabricates fantasy about whirlpools when they are not as large or as strong in reality.

Longshore current website The NOAA website explains what a longshore current is and how it is made using graphics and a small slide show.

Longshore current video This video has no talking, it simply puts up the definition of longshore current and briefly explains how the longshore current adds to longshore drift by taking sediment off of the beach and moving it.

Groin (groyne) and jetty website The Sea Grant Delaware website explains what a groin and jetty are and the differences between them. This includes the use and where each are located.

Groin (groyne) and jetty video This LearnCoastalErosion video goes through the structures that are used to slow down coastal erosion. It shows and talks about both groins and jetties. It talks about the intention and issues with each of the structures.


Unit 7: Marine Ecology and Conservation


Chapter 21 – Marine Environments


21.1 What Are the Features of the Marine Life Zones?


Life zones website This Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University website discusses the different zones in the ocean and what light or pressure is contained within the zones.

Life zones video This video describes the differences between the different life zones in the ocean. It discusses the animals found in general in each zone.

Strandline website The Wildlife Trusts website explains what a strandline is and why it is important along with all the life the strandline contains. It also discusses where the strandline will be found. The website also discusses what can be done to clean up the trash on the strandline.

Strandline video This very brief ADictionary video gives the definition of strandline. There are no pictures.

Supratidal zone and subtidal zone website This website explains the rocky shore habitat. There is an explanation of the supratidal zone and the subtidal zone. It discusses which animals would be best suited for each zone.

Supratidal zone and subtidal zone video This Virtual Field Trips video shows what the supratidal, intertidal, and subtidal zones are on a beach.

Photosynthesis website The Smithsonian Science Education Center website explains what photosynthesis is and how plants use the process. It gives the chemical equation for photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis video This MonkeySee video explains photosynthesis and shows the chemical equation. It also talks briefly about the light reaction and the Calvin Cycle. The video also talks about the importance of photosynthesis.

Photic zone website The Science Encyclopedia website explains what the photic zone is and that the photic zone contains the primary producers that the food web depends on.

Photic zone video This Audiopedia video gives the formal definition of the photic zone and states where the photic zone is found. It discusses that most of the life in the ocean is found in this zone.

Aphotic zone website The Encyclopedia.com website gives the definition of aphotic zone and states that this zone extends downward from 1000 m and includes the abyssal zone.

Aphotic zone video This video does not include any talking, but includes the definition of aphotic zone. It also shows many of the organisms that are known to live in the aphotic zone. It briefly talks about the thermal vents in the deep ocean and how life would not be possible without them.

Ocean basin website This World Landforms website gives the definition of an ocean basin and lists the two characteristics of an ocean basin. The website gives examples of the landform and discusses how ocean basins are formed.

Ocean basin video This Audiopedia video gives the hydrogeology and geologic definitions. It discusses the formations of the basins.

Abyssal plain website The Extreme Science website defines abyssal plain and shows a creature that lives on the plain.

Abyssal plain video This is a created PowToon video about the abyssal zone. There is no talking but there are words here and there that show what the abyssal plain is about.

Benthos video This Earth Rocks! video discusses nekton, benthos, and plankton. The video provides pictures of several organisms that are classified in each category.


21.2 What Are the Characteristics of the Sandy Beach Environment?


Sandy beach website This Marine Science website discusses all of the different aspects of a sandy beach including the different organisms that live on the sandy beach. A second page shows pictures of the many different organisms.

Sandy beach video This video does not have any talking but does have readings every few frames. It shows some of the organisms that live on sandy beaches. The video also talks about the threats to sandy beaches.

Zonation website This website gives a definition of zonation.

Zonation video This video discusses that biologists have divided the oceans into zones in order to make learning about the ocean more manageable. The video talks about the horizontal zones and describes what they are and what can be found there. It also talks about the vertical zones.


21.3 How Do Organisms Interact with the Rocky Coast Environment?


Rocky coasts website This website explains the features of the rocky shore habitat. It explains what kinds of organisms live in this environment in which zone they can be found. It also gives the benefits and hazards of each zone that the organisms will face.

Rocky coasts video This video shows some of the animals that live in the rocky coast environment. It also discusses how the animals live on the rocky coast.

Tide pools website This SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment website gives the definition of a tide pool and explains how they are formed.

Tide pools video This ExplorOcean video starts by explaining the tides and how tide pools are formed. It discusses the animals that live at the different zones of the tide pool.


21.4 What Are the Features of the Estuary Environment?


Estuary website The NOAA website gives the definition of an estuary and explains why they are important. It also discusses that Congress created the National Estuarine Reserve System to protect estuarine land and water.

Estuary video This EPA video defines estuary. It explains why estuaries are so important and irreplaceable. The video explains how estuaries help the economy as well.

Brackish water website This website defines brackish water and salinity levels. It discusses industrial use and the danger of saltwater intrusion.

Brackish water video This EstuaryLiveTV video talks about estuary salinity readings and how they are measured. It also shows the kinds of organisms that are found in brackish water in a Louisiana estuary. The video compares the salinity of the estuary to the salinity of the ocean.

Barrier beaches website The Bates Coastal Geology Research and Environmental Archive defines what a barrier beach is and includes a picture which clearly shows where the barrier beach is found.

Barrier beaches video This video explains what a barrier island is and how they are formed. It also discusses the features of the barrier island including the beach and how the beach moves.

Salt marsh community or wetlands website The NOAA website defines a salt marsh/coastal wetlands and advises where they can be found. It also explains why the salt marsh/coastal wetlands are important.

Salt marsh community or wetlands video This U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service video defines what a salt marsh is and explains what happens in the marsh. It also shows the different vegetation that grows in the salt marsh. The video also shows many of the different types of wildlife that live in the salt marsh, and explains why salt marshes are important.

Mudflat community website This Marine Science website explains what a mud flat is and where it is usually found. It has several pages for the user to scroll through and many pictures of the wildlife—both plants and animals—that live in the mudflat community.

Mudflat community video The DunedinAquarium video looks at the different organisms that live in mudflats.

Mangrove community website The Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce website explains what a mangrove community is and the organisms that can be found there. It explains that the term mangrove can be used to describe a wide variety of trees and shrubs.

Mangrove community video This BlueWorldTV video explains what mangrove forests are and takes a look at the adaptations of mangrove trees. It also explains why mangrove forests/trees are important as nurseries and hiding places for many other species.


21.5 How Do Organisms Adapt to the Coral Reef Environment?


Coral reef website The Defenders of Wildlife website defines a coral reef. It also discusses what types of organisms live in a coral reef.

Coral reef video This D News video talks about what a coral reef is and how they are made. It also talks about why coral reefs are important. The video explains why coral reefs are in trouble.

Biodiversity website The National Wildlife Federation website explains the definition of biodiversity and everything that definition includes.

Biodiversity video This MonkeySee video explains what biodiversity is and how it is studied. It also talks about why biodiversity is important and that 1/3 of all species are in danger of extinction.

Disruptive coloration website The Nature.com website briefly explains what disruptive coloration is and what it does for organisms.

Disruptive coloration video This Bubble Vision video shows many different ways that animals are camouflaged in the deep. Some animals hide in plain site and mimic others while other animals change the way they look to appear part of their surroundings.

Territoriality website This BBC website explains what territoriality is and how it is used by animals. There are several pages that show specific animals and what they do to display territoriality.

Territoriality video This LabofOrnithology video takes a look at gulls and how they display their territoriality. The video explains why the gulls display territoriality.


21.6 What Are Some Extreme Marine Environments?


Extremophiles website The NOAA website defines extremophile. It also points out that these animals are extreme only from a human perspective.

Extremophiles video The Encyclopaedia Britannica video gives the definition of extremophiles and discusses the many different places extremophiles live.

Hyperthermophiles website The Biology Online dictionary gives the definition of hyperthermophile. Along with the definition, the entry gives the categories of hyperthermophiles and at what temperature each of the hyperthermophiles lives.

Hyperthermophiles video This Wiz Science explains what a thermophile is and shows many pictures of what they look like. It also discusses in what type of environment a hyperthermophile lives.

Mariana trench website National Geographic website. This website explains what the Mariana Trench is and where it is located. It tells the history of the exploration of the trench and discusses some of the deep sea creatures found in the trench.

Mariana trench video This Top5s video explains what the Mariana Trench is and where it is located. It tells about the lack of light, the pressure, and the temperature of the trench. The video talks about the descents made into the Mariana Trench. It also shows a few of the creatures that are found in the Mariana Trench.


Chapter 22: Interdependence in the Sea


22.1 What Natural Cycles Occur in the Ocean?


Ecosystems website This Khan Academy website defines an ecosystem and what it includes. It discusses what ecosystems are like and points out that within a biome there can be great diversity. The website discusses energy and matter in ecosystems as well as the resistance and resilience of ecosystems.

Ecosystems video This MonkeySee video discusses what an ecosystem is and where the energy for an ecosystem comes from.

Biotic and abiotic factors website The Sciencing website defines and gives examples of both biotic and abiotic factors.

Biotic abiotic factors video The video explains the difference between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. The video shows different interactions in an ecosystem between biotic and abiotic factors.

Carbon cycle website The National Center for Atmospheric Research website shows the carbon cycle in a graphic and explains the cycle. It also explains how carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and will trap heat in the atmosphere.

Carbon cycle video This Crash Course Chemistry video explains the carbon cycle and how it repeats. It goes further and talks about carbon fixation and cellular respiration.

Carbon cycle activity Users watch a video and answer questions about the video. There is also a karaoke song.

Oxygen cycle website The Earth Eclipse website explains the oxygen cycle and how it is related to the carbon cycle. It explains where on Earth oxygen can be found, not just in the air, and how different processes release oxygen for use by organisms on Earth.

Oxygen cycle video This CBSE video explains how oxygen in the atmosphere is used and replaced.

Nitrogen cycle website Th National Center for Atmospheric Research website shows a graphic of the nitrogen cycle and explains the cycle. It also explains what happens when there is a build up of nitrogen in lakes and rivers.

Nitrogen cycle video This Khan Academy video takes a look at atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and how it is turned into a usable form for plants to use by bacteria. It discusses how many different organisms need nitrogen, and not just plants. The video discusses how higher organisms use nitrogen and then how nitrogen is released when an organism dies and can be used by plants or into the atmospheric nitrogen.

Nitrogen cycle activity Users watch a video and answer questions about the video.

Nitrogen fixation website The Encyclopaedia Britannica website explains nitrogen fixation. It talks about the process developed to fix atmospheric nitrogen and how it has changed over time.

Nitrogen fixation video This Wisceductionnetwork video explains nitrogen fixation through the story of George Washington Carver helping southern farmers learn to rotate crops in order to improve soil quality.

Sulfur cycle website The Boundless.com website shows the sulfur cycle and explains where the sulfur comes from for the cycle. It also explains what impact humans have had on the sulfur cycle.

Sulfur cycle video This video discusses how sulfur is released into the atmosphere. It explains how sulfur is replaced into the ground and why biological organisms need sulfur.

Phosphorus cycle website The Science Learning Hub website explains why phosphorus is important to living things. It explains the phosphorus cycle and where phosphate comes from. The website explains that phosphorus is not for plants to use readily in the soil as it is locked up in sediments and rocks and that farmers add phosphorus to the soil through fertilizers.

Phosphorus cycle video This Beverly Biology video starts by explaining why phosphorus is important and needed. It explains where phosphorus comes from and how it is released into the soil. The video also explains how phosphorus from fertilizers can end up in water and cause algal blooms and possible dead zones. The video ends with a practice quiz about the phosphorus cycle.


22.2 What Food Relationships Occur in the Sea?


Food chain website The National Geographic Site website describes the food chain. It discusses primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, decomposers, carnivores, omnivores, and scavengers. The website gives a marine science example of a food web.

Food chain video This Crash Course Kids video explains what a food chain is and how it works. It discusses how food chains can get more complicated and looks at food webs. The video takes a look at what happens if one of the organisms in the food web is removed.

Food chain picture This picture shows one possible food chain with the primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, and decomposer labeled.

Food web website This National Geographic website explains how food chains make up food webs. It also explains trophic levels and how food webs are broken up into those levels. The website also explains biomass.

Food web activity In this PBS Learning Media activity the learner explores food chains/webs, the trophic table and can play an Antarctic food web game.

Scavengers website This National Geographic website explains what a scavenger is and how a lot of carnivores may be scavengers under certain circumstances. It also describes how scavengers are a part of the food chain. The website also takes a look at the process of urban development and what happens to food chains.

Scavengers video This National Geographic WILD video looks at the jackal and how they scavenge for food from a pack of lions. It shows how the lions already made the kill, but the jackal sneaks in and takes part of the kill.

Saprophytes website The Gardening Know How website describes what a saprophyte is and what it does. It gives information as to how to tell if a plant is a saprophyte.

Saprophytes video This short CBSE video gives the definition of saprophyte, explains what saprophytes do, and gives a few examples.

Food pyramid website The Digital Desert website describes what a food pyramid is and gives an example. The website explains what will be found at each level.

Food pyramid video This Amoeba Sisters video looks at food chains and moves it to a pyramid. It shows how organisms lose energy as it goes up the food pyramid. The video takes a look at food webs and what would happen if one organism was removed from the web.


22.3 How Do Symbiotic Relationships Occur in the Sea?


Symbiosis website The NOAA website explains symbiotic relationships and the different kinds of symbiotic relationships—mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. It gives a few examples from the ocean as to the organisms that form symbiotic relationships.

Symbiosis video This Untamed Science video talks about symbiosis and provides examples of each. It discusses mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.


22.4 How Does Succession Occur in Marine Environments?


Ecological succession (biological succession) website The Hunker.com website explains biological succession. It breaks down succession into its component parts from primary succession to climax communities. The website also talks about controlled succession and human impact.

Ecological succession (biological succession) video This Crash Course Ecology video explains succession and what happens when the ecology has been disturbed. It explains different types of succession.

Invasive species website The NOAA website gives the definition of invasive species and explains what invasive species can do to the natural habitat and species. It also has a short video.

Invasive species videoThis TED-Ed video explains what invasive species are and gives three examples. It also talks about why invasive species do not have trouble in their natural habitats.


Chapter 23: Pollution in the Ocean


23.1 What Is the Impact of Sewage on the Ocean?


Pollution website This National Geographic website discusses what marine pollution is and some of how it got there. It talks about pollution's many forms and what many countries are doing to clean up the oceans and keep pristine ecosystems clean.

Pollution video This Crash Course Ecology video discusses many different pollutants, not just marine pollution. It gives examples and talks about why the example is particularly bad.

Sewage website The Collins English Dictionary website defines sewage.

Sewage video This National Geographic video shows where sewage goes once it leaves homes in London and the process sewage undergoes in order for water to return to the river.

Effluent website The Dictionary.com website gives five possible definitions of effluent. The first three deal with something flowing out or forth. The last two have to do with sewage treatment.

Effluent video This Audiopedia video gives the definition of effluent. It advises that effluent refers only to liquid discharge.


23.2 What Toxic Substances Are in the Marine Environment?


Toxic chemicals website The Science News website explains how researchers are finding that everyday chemicals are ending up in our water. It discusses new chemicals that water treatment plants need to look for and treat in water.

Toxic chemicals video This University of Technology Sydney video shows the research a team is conducting at the university surrounding toxic chemicals in fish that are commercially sold and eaten by people.

DDT website The EPA website explains the development and use of DDT and includes reasons it is no longer used. The website gives the current status of DDT and who can use it and for what reasons.

DDT video This NV at CEP Imperial video takes a historical look at DDT use. It shows how DDT was sprayed over everything all the time and when Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring. It also discusses what happened when concerns were brought up and how the government did not know what the chemicals were doing to the environment.

PCBs website The NOAA website discusses how PCBs were banned in 1979. It also discusses what PCBs were used for and that they can be found worldwide in people and in animals.

PCBs video This video explains what PCBs are and where they are found. It gives examples of products that carry PCBs. The video briefly describes what PCBs are known to cause and gives a list of environmental professionals that individuals can contact.

Biological magnification website The EarthEclipse website explains biomagnification and its causes. The website discusses how biomagnification happens in a step-by-step explanation.

Biological magnification video This Amoeba Sisters video clearly explains biological magnification. It shows how the lower the animal is on the trophic level the less the toxin, and that animals on higher levels have to eat more of the contaminated organisms on the lower levels which increases toxicity in the higher animals.

Biological accumulation website Business Dictionary gives the definition of bioaccumulation.

Biological accumulation video This StrategicComm video describes the history of PCBs and defines bioaccumulation. It continues with discussing the warnings given for different kinds of fish because of the accumulation in certain organs and tissues. The video also gives guidance as to how to avoid PCBs through cooking.

Mercury and heavy metals website The UN Environment website discusses heavy metals and heavy metal exposure. It lists the effects on human health and ecosystems. The website specifically addresses mercury, lead, and cadmium. It also discusses the laws and different things being done to reduce heavy metals in the environment.

Mercury and heavy metals video This D News video takes a look at mercury exposure and bioaccumulation. It discusses how fish get methyl mercury and which people should avoid eating certain fish.

Nonpoint source pollution website The EPA website defines nonpoint source pollution. It also includes possible nonpoint source pollution sources. The website also gives indications as to what individuals can do about nonpoint source pollution. There is also a fact sheet.

Nonpoint source pollution video This Indiana Department of Environmental Management video shows nonpoint source pollution and explains how it gets into water.

Radioactive wastes website The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies website focuses on the radiation caused by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. It discusses the history of radioactive wastes being dumped into the ocean by different countries as well.

Radioactive wastes video This longer video shows the history of radioactive waste dumping in the ocean. It talks about the movements of Greenpeace that lead to the stopping of the radioactive waste dumping. The video looks at the radioactivity on beaches and how this causes illness in humans. The video also very briefly talks about Fukushima.

Thermal pollution website The Earth Eclipse website defines thermal pollution and gives examples of the leading causes of thermal pollution.

Thermal pollution video This video describes thermal pollution and where it comes from. It talks about the effects of thermal pollution on aquatic organisms.


23.3 What Causes Changes in Ocean Water Chemistry?


Turbidity website The US Geological Society website explains turbidity and what water looks like if it has high turbidity. It also discusses how turbidity is measured.

Turbidity video The University of Wisconsin Extension video explains turbidity and why high turbidity changes things in the water. The video shows how to measure turbidity.

Brown tide website The NYSG website explains brown tide. It also talks about what a brown tide does and the loss of money caused by the brown tide. The website explains that brown tides are not known to be a health threat to humans, but that the bloom may decrease the desire of people to use the water.

Brown tide video This CBS New York video shows the brown tide in Long Island and explains what happens in a brown tide. It also mentions some of the reasons a brown tide occurs.

Algal bloom website The NOAA website explains an algal bloom. It discusses some of the causes, how they are predicted, where they happen, and when they happen.

Algal bloom video This video starts by explaining algae. It also explains what an algal bloom is and shows many different examples. The video explains why the algal bloom can be toxic and the ones that are not toxic but cause problems in aquatic wildlife. It explains what causes algal blooms.

Hypoxia website The NOAA website defines hypoxia. It also explains why hypoxia happens and gives efforts being made to combat hypoxia.

Hypoxia video This video explains hypoxia and dead zones. It takes a look at the water near Oregon and the dead zones that have happened there.

Ocean acidification website The NOAA website explains ocean acidification and why it is happening. It explains that ocean acidification is happening all over the world.

Ocean acidification video This video explains ocean acidification and what effect it is having on organisms in the ocean.


23.4 What Kinds of Litter Are in the Ocean?


Litter in the ocean website This National Geographic website explains the litter that makes up the garbage patches in the ocean. It discusses why the litter is too massive for any one country to clean up, what makes up the garbage patch, as well as why it is harmful to wildlife.


23.5 What Are Some Solutions to Marine Pollution?


MARPOL website The International Maritime Organization website gives the MARPOL Convention and annexes. These are regulations that are aimed at pollution from ships.

MARPOL video This video goes through the annexes of the MARPOL convention. It also explains what MARPOL stands for and gives the proposed MARPOL conventions.

Photodegradable website The Encyclopedia.com website defines photodegradable plastic and gives both the pros and the cons of photodegradable plastic.

Photodegradable video This video describes biodegradable and photodegradable. The video explains that certain plastics end up in landfills and oceans. It also explains that biodegradable plastic is a chemically-created plastic that needs exact bacteria to break down. Photodegradable releases toxic residue and methane gas. More research needs to be done to actually make plastic degradable.

EPA website The EPA website gives the mission statement of the EPA and what the EPA does and doesn’t do. There are links to the history, organization chart, facilities, directory, headquarters, etc.

EPA video This video talks about the current situation with the EPA and a history of why the EPA is needed. The video shows pictures of the ways things were in the 1970s before the EPA. It points out that we have clean air and water because of the EPA.

NOAA website The NOAA website t explains what the NOAA is and what they do. There are links to the history, organization, directory, budget, funding, and state pages.

NOAA video This NOAA Ocean Media Center video explains what the NOAA is and when it started. It describes what the NOAA does.


Chapter 24: Conservation of Resources


24.1 What Are Some Marine Resources?


Natural resources website The eSchoolToday website explains what natural resources are and the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources. Several pages explain the distribution, use, conflicts, recovery, and conservation of natural resources.

Natural resources video This Bozeman Science video explains natural resources, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources. It also links the natural resources to where people live on the planet.

Conservation webite This National Geographic website explains what conservation is and how it relates to renewable and nonrenewable resources.

Conservation video This California Academy of Sciences video gives the formal definition of conservation and breaks it down further. It talks about different ways to conserve species in order to preserve biodiversity.

Fisheries website The Marine Stewardship Council website defines the different kinds of available fisheries. There are links on the website to learn more about the Marine Stewardship Council and fisheries.

Fisheries video This AbundantOceans video talks about sustainable fisheries and how to best rate the fisheries. It talks about the management of the fisheries.

Longlining fishing website The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website explains longline fishing and how it is performed. The website gives overviews of the kinds of fish that are caught using this fishing method, as well as the crew and the ship needed.

Longlining fishing video This Hawaiian Fresh Seafood video shows a boat in Hawaii that uses the longlining fishing. It explains and shows how longlining fishing works.

Trawling net website The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website explains what a trawl net is, how it is used, and what it is used for.

Trawling net video This Seafood Watch video shows how the trawling net is used and how it catches fish. The video points out how the bottom trawling net has adverse effects on the seafloor and wildlife by catching unwanted species.

Purse seine net website The NOAA website explains how purse seine nets are employed in fishing and how the catch is hauled onto the boat. The website also points out that unintended species get caught in this net and are often injured and unable to be released back into the wild. These species include turtles, dolphins, and humpback whales.

Purse seine net video This Seafood Watch video shows how a purse seine net is used to fish. It points out that the use of FADs will attract and trap protected and juvenile species.

Gill net website The NOAA website explains how a gill net is used in fishing. It also points out the turtles and mammals that get caught in a gill net and the precautions that are being employed to prevent this.

Gill net video This Seafood Watch video explains what a gill net is and how it is used for fishing. It talks about unintended catch and what fishermen can do to prevent marine mammals from being caught in the net.

Bycatch website This NOAA website provides information on what bycatch is, the dangers and threats that it poses, and what can be done to reduce harmful effects. The website also provides several links to more information.

Bycatch video This video explains bycatch and discusses why bycatch is a problem.

Maximum sustainable yield website The Oceana blog does a good job of explaining what maximum sustainable yield is in relation to fishing and where the term originally came from.

Maximum sustainable yield video This Conservation Strategy Fund video looks at how carrying capacity affects the population of fish. It uses this information to help set the number of fish that can be fished sustainably.

Petroleum website The AAPG website explains what petroleum is and what it can be separated into. It also explains what is meant by “crude” and “sour.”

Petroleum video This EarthScience Western Australia video explains where oil is found and how it was originally made. It also explains how geologists find oil.

Minerals website The Geology.com website explains how minerals are defined and tested in a geological manner. It also discusses how the word mineral is misused to describe anything that comes out of the ground.

Minerals video This MonkeySee video explains what a mineral is and what qualifies as a mineral. It also explains that the human body needs minerals in order to live and that minerals are used in everything.

Manganese nodules website This Live Science website describes a new area of manganese nodules that have been found. It also describes what manganese nodules are made of and what they look like.

Manganese nodules video This DW English video shows a team of researchers looking for resources on the seafloor. It also shows the manganese nodules on the seafloor and how researchers are harvesting manganese nodules.

Desalination website This website explains what desalinated water is and where it comes from. It explains what the saline parameters are for water and how desalination is a natural process that is being duplicated in order for arid regions to receive potable water.

Desalination video This PlanetGreenTV video points out that we are close to a global water crisis. It explains what desalination is and how it is done. The video also explains why only certain areas are eligible for desalination.


24.2 How Can We Farm the Sea?


Mariculture website The Lexicon of Food website gives the definition of mariculture. There are several links on the bottom of the page that lead to more information about mariculture and its different aspects.

Mariculture video This VelellaProject video discusses the Velella Project, a floating drifter pen in federal waters near the big island of Hawaii. It discusses where the fish come from and how they are doing in the drifter pen.

Open-ocean fish farming This National Geographic video shows what an open-ocean farm looks like and how they are farming.

Aquaculture website The NOAA website explains what aquaculture is and where it happens. It also explains what aquaculture produces.

Aquaculture video This NOAA video briefly advises what aquaculture is while showing what it looks like.


24.3 How Can We Protect Marine Animals?


Extinct website The Science 4 Kids website gives a description of what extinct means and what causes it. It shows pictures of several extinct animals.

Extinct video This DreamWorksTV video doesn’t define extinction but it does explain the different reasons why some animals go extinct.

Endangered species website This National Geographic website explains what endangered means. It also describes the other levels on the “Red List” and what they mean.

Endangered species video This Pennsylvania Wild Resource Conservation Program video explains what it means to be endangered. Parts of the video seems aimed at a younger audience but there is a lot of good information about endangered species and what threatens them.

Threatened species website This NOAA website compares what it means to be endangered to what it means to be threatened. It also gives the five factors that a species must have in order to be listed as endangered or threatened.

Threatened species video explains the differences between endangered and threatened species. The video explains what each of the levels on the “Red List” mean and some of the organisms that are at each level.

Sustainability website The UCLA.edu website gives a couple of definitions of sustainability and points out why it is important. It has a video on the website about sustainability.

Sustainability video gives the definition of sustainability and the history of sustainability. It takes a look at the economic, social, and environmental pillars of sustainability.

Marine sanctuaries website The NOAA website gives the definition of a marine sanctuary and describes why they exist. It also advises where the sanctuaries can be found.

Marine sanctuaries video This NOAA Sanctuaries video explains what marine sanctuaries are and shows where they are located in the United States.